This article started its life as a “30 things in 30 years” post.
But then two things happened…
- The number of things I wanted to share ballooned past 30; and
- I turned 31
So instead, this is a running list of “everything I know”; important life lessons that have proven true for me. I’ve written it specifically for growth minded people that would prefer to learn from my mistakes then stumble through years of barriers on their own. As my friend Carolynn put it, “I wish I’d gotten this when I turned 21. Would have saved me some headaches later.”
I’ve categorized the items for easier reading and I ruthlessly cut out fluff. I recommend you read this article carefully, like you would read a book.
Note: I first published this list in 2016 with 76 items, and I’ve added more since.
Table of Contents
- There is a compounding effect of missed opportunities.
If you missed an opportunity to earn an extra $50K per year, that’s fine, you will have more opportunities to earn that. Even after 5 years, total $250K, it’s easy to think “I can earn that”, but what you will never catch up with is the compounding effect of missed opportunities. That $50,000 re-invested every year yields another amount significant enough to be re-invested, and so on. Einstein is quoted as saying that compound interest is the most powerful force in the universe, and he was almost right. Actually it is the compounding effect of missed opportunities.Added: 2016
- Pay back every dollar you borrow from family and friends.
Anything less is stealing. If you are past due, your own spending should be absolute bare minimum until you’ve paid back 100%. This is specifically about borrowing from individuals and not institutions which have their own rules.Added: 2016
- When you have a bad experience, it’s okay to ask for a refund.
Refunds are a great and IMO under used aspect of customer service. It doesn’t have to be explicitly offered. If Chipotle serves you burnt food, ask for a refund. If the guy in front of you talks through the whole movie, ask for a refund.Added: 2016
- You don’t need a cellphone.
You don’t need a car. You don’t need to buy a house. You can choose to have these things, but they are a luxury not a necessity. There are some exceptions where it’s actually a necessity, e.g., a doctor without a cellphone would be irresponsible. If you “need” a car to get to work, evaluate whether you could change jobs, live closer or take public transit.Added: 2016
- The quantity of things you actually need to live well fit in a small backpack. Added: 2016
- Nobody else’s first priority is to make you rich.
Even if you are employee of the year. Even if you are the biggest investor in a project. They will always have another priority that comes first. Exception: moms, but even then your health, happiness and safety probably come first.Added: 2016
- Your ego is making you poor. Added: 2016
- Every dollar you waste is a dollar that won’t go to helping people.
I work with the assumption that after modest life expenses all excess funds will go to helping people. That means that money that is truly wasted, e.g., paying for a subscription I don’t use, is actually money that I can’t use to help people.Added: 2016
- You can negotiate way more than you do.
Even though negotiating is somewhat taboo in North America, it’s very common in other parts of the world. You can negotiate your salary, rent, buying a computer from a small shop, buying a bed from craigslist, etc.Added: 2016
- It's really hard to get rich off an income.
Because expenses and taxes can use up a lot of that income. But income can also contribute to buying assets, and a mix of the two can make you rich.Added: 2016
- Often 90% of top quality for 30% of the price is enough.
I like to buy high quality and durable items when it’s a good investment, i.e., it saves money in the long run or there are benefits like productivity or health boosts. Often the highest quality item’s price is inflated because of the brand name, so I skip that. I’d rather buy an $80 shirt that is 9/10 than a $200 shirt that is 10/10.Added: 2016
- Other people’s money can be your money.
“It takes money to make money” said everyone ever. And sometimes it’s true, but it doesn’t have to be your money. You can borrow funds or take investment. Famous people that use other people’s money: Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg, Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates, Warren Buffett & Steve Jobs. Important: Unless there is an explicit agreement otherwise, you should treat other people’s money even more carefully than you do your own.Added: 2016
- The basics of personal finance are Earn, Save, Grow.
Which is a very simple way of thinking about money. If you increase your earnings and decrease your spending than you can invest more to grow your wealth.Added: 2016
- It’s better to make aggressive, risky investments while you are young.
Even if it doesn’t work out, you have time to recover.Added: 2016
- Frugality is a short term wealth building strategy.
But after that allow some budget for convenience and comfort.Added: 2016
- Don’t put all your money eggs in one basket.
Unless you control that basket. You have definitely heard this before, but it’s tempting to ignore when you see a great opportunity. Ignore your gut and follow this like a strict rule.Added: 2016
- If you can’t find a great promo code try “subway.”
In NYC a tonne of internet companies advertise on the trains, many of them use the code “subway” to save $200, get 20% off, receive a free xyz, etc. If you don’t have another code, try “subway”.Added: 2016
- You don’t have to fear debt.
But you should use it strategically. Debt with a positive ROI is a way to build wealth faster.Added: 2016
- To earn passive income you have to pass a threshold of effort or capital invested in it.
The investment required to yield results is higher than most people think and/or are willing to commit.Added: 2018
- You can make substantial leaps in wealth by switching from monitoring your expenses to analyzing your net worth.
You may still need to be aware of expenses, but instead of asking questions like “how can I reduce my grocery bill?”, you switch to “how can I increase my income?” or “what would happen if I paid off my entire student debt?”Added: 2018
- How to become wealthy: make your income greater than your expenses, and then make your investment returns greater than your income.
Wealth building is easier if your expenses are low.Added: 2018
- One very bad decision can undo many good decisions (and vice-versa).
For example, you could make 1000 frugal decisions to save more money and then make one bad investment where you lose it all.Added: 2020
- One of the best investments you can make is in yourself.
Money people want to sell you REITs and mutual funds, but what is the ROI of investing in yourself? Courses, coaches, projects and even spending like travel can be a great way to invest in your #1 asset, you. I would rather be 1% better at everything I do then get a 100% instant ROI on my savings.Added: 2020
- “No refunds” often means you are going to want a refund.
A variation on this is businesses that charge you in advance for services that you would usually pay at the end (like restaurants, massages and hair cuts).Added: 2020
- You don’t need special skills to freelance.
When I started freelancing I was a better than average writer, but that’s it. 40% is the relationship, 40% is being reliable, hardworking, etc., 10% is price, and 10% is skill — which you can learn as you go.Added: 2016
- Provide more value than you expect to receive in return.
My first goal with every client is to help them earn back the entire cost of my fees. After that, I aim to deliver 10x to 100x in ROI.Added: 2016
- You can earn $300 per hour.
It’s not that hard and you don’t have to be a lawyer. Just provide a valuable service and do it better than everyone else. 90% of people doing anything aren’t doing it that well, so if you work your way into the 10% you can charge premium rates for your time.Added: 2016
- $300 per hour won’t make you happy.
And neither will $600. I’ve charged both, and been way happier with less.Added: 2016
- Relationships get your foot in the door and results get you high pay.
All of my best clients came from months or even years of building relationships. But if you want ongoing work at premium rates, you still have to produce exceptional results.Added: 2016
- You don’t charge your opportunity cost, you charge your clients opportunity cost.
Maybe you are an awesome graphic designer and charge $250 per hour to design logos. If a client wants you to do lower value work, like some Instagram images, you probably can’t charge your logo rate. It’s easy to think, “well my time is worth $250 per hour so every client should pay that”, but it’s wrong. You can charge the same as an equally qualified competitor for that specific task, plus a small buffer for your client not having to go out and find that competitor.Added: 2016
- When they say “do a good job and there will be more” you are actually getting a shit deal.
This person is not willing to pay market rate for your work. Often these clients are a pain to work with and get payment from. Instead, find clients that say, “there is potential for us to do a lot together, but first I want to make sure we’re a great fit.” I’ve done free work and small projects to land great clients, but I will never contract with a client that promises that the good work will come later.Added: 2016
- To increase sales, assume people are well intentioned but lazy.
Almost nobody wants to spend extra time and effort making a decision about you. Make it really easy for them and you will make more sales.Added: 2016
- People that say revenue doesn’t matter, only profit, are mistaken.
I’ve heard a lot of people say something like “I could spend a million dollars on ads and earn a million in revenue”, but actually you probably couldn’t. Revenue does matter. It’s also possible to have a business with $1 million revenue and zero profit because all the excess was reinvested in the business with an aim of earning $2 million next year.Added: 2016
- It’s hard to hire good people.
Because even the good people aren’t operating at 100% all the time. You may be getting them during a slump. Or maybe you aren’t providing the right management or leadership to help them reach their full potential.Added: 2016
- Bartering is an easy way to start a business.
Other people want what you have but aren’t in a good position to pay for it. You want what other people have but aren’t in a good position to pay for it. You can trade.Added: 2016
- You aren’t entitled to a job you love, a high salary, great benefits or much else.
You can earn all of these things by doing great work and asking for what you want.Added: 2018
- The vast majority of businesses are not reaching their growth potential.
Step one is to do more, faster. If you aren’t sure what action to take, a shortcut is to hire a consultant to tell you what to do. Consultants don’t have to be a major commitment, you can start with one hour and go from there.Added: 2018
- Some business waste is normal and expected.
Skip trying to optimize every decision and instead be willing to invest a little extra to just “get it done” or “try it out.” It’s more important to keep moving forward, and you can often reduce costs later.Added: 2018
- One of the biggest wins you can have as a manager and leader is giving your people more than they ask for. Added: 2018
- You don’t have to wait for a scheduled time to start a call.
Maybe you are both waiting to start, so send a message and say “hey, I’m ready!”Added: 2018
- There is a strong correlation between becoming more successful and missing out on bigger opportunities. Added: 2018
- Almost any meeting can be made better with a presentation
It doesn’t have to be fancy. You can hack together a fun slideshow in less than 10 minutes.Added: 2020
- You don’t have to be a founder to be an entrepreneur.
You can buy a company, inherit one, franchise, or license. None of these options are inherently better or worse than starting your own.Added: 2020
- Premium domains are a value multiplier for companies.
If you have a plot of land in Manhattan it is valuable, and the same goes for a premium domain. If you have an Empire State Building it is valuable, and the same goes for solid businesses. If you put your Empire State Building on your Manhattan land, the resulting value is multiples higher than the sum of their separate values, and the same goes for a great business on a great domain.Added: 2021
Productivity & Growth 💪
- You will finish everything you start.
If you are starting a new business, your day one version of “finishing” may be a million dollar exit, but the true finish is whenever you stop working on it. I’ve benefited from every project I worked on. If you think of a project as 100 units of time and 100 units of value, they are never distributed evenly. You may get 90% of the value in the first 50% of project time.Added: 2016
- Your biggest breaks will come from serendipity.
Your infinitely complex life exists in an infinitely complex world. Patterns can give you some certainty about the future, and careful planning + hustle = a powerful force, but your biggest opportunities for change and growth will come from serendipity.Added: 2016
- Your biggest breaks will come after doing massive work upfront. Added: 2016
- You will never regret getting better at reading and writing.
Some day you will probably regret binge watching shows. But if you spend that time reading and writing, you can accelerate every area of your life.Added: 2016
- One hour of focus can get a lot done.
Between refreshing email and staring at your phone, it’s easy to get nothing done all day. One hour of uninterrupted effort can get a lot done. Really even 20 minutes.Added: 2016
- 20 minutes after a movie starts, pause it and decide if you want to keep watching.
Sometimes I finish movies, shows, books, etc. because of a need for completion. But if you are consuming something that isn’t great then it’s actually a waste of time.Added: 2016
- Front load your learning.
This is a way to learn complex skills. Start by doing an intensive dive into a subject and then give yourself permission to learn the rest over time. Examples: you can learn the basics of building a website in a couple of weeks, and then get incrementally better over time. Same with languages, cooking, sports and other skills.Added: 2016
- Start by optimizing for the 80% not the 1%. Added: 2016
- Focus on your output not your input.
There are no points for spending more time on stuff.Added: 2018
- Avoid unnecessary calls.
Sometimes calls are a great way to speed up a process or get a better result. Cold sales outreach and folks looking for free advice almost never fit into this category. Instead, respond with “Hi, I prefer email. Please send a quick summary including details, the value to us and price. Thanks.”Added: 2018
- Follow the $20 Rule.
If you can fix a problem or create an efficiency for $20 or less, do it. Example: smart plugs to control your electronics cost $10 each. I have one on my air filter that turns off when I leave the house, and back on when I come home. Another outlet shuts off my wifi at night and turns it back on at the same time I wake up. The $20 is a proxy, so it could be $50, $1000 or whatever makes sense for you.Added: 2018
- Invest in tech that will make you more productive.
Example: when I buy a new computer I max out the performance upgrades, because saving even a few seconds with each process adds up to significant gains over time.Added: 2018
- I am constantly blown away by how little I know.
If you roll back to any “six months ago”, I thought I knew a lot, but in hindsight I’m surprised I was even functional. I expect this cycle to continue indefinitely into the future.Added: 2018
- An easy formula for getting great work done is make it exist, and then make it better.
My output is very high because I accept that my first version may be terrible, but for me it’s the best way to get to version two.Added: 2018
- In business, best practices often get average results.
Instead, how can you learn from best practices and apply them in a new way to earn exceptional results? Example: many businesses consider a 3% conversion rate excellent, but maybe you can get 10%+ with a different approach.Added: 2018
- You don’t need to solve every problem before it is a problem.
Instead, use the Damage Probability Ratio. The more probable a negative outcome is to occur, and the more damage that it will cause, the more resources you should dedicate toward fixing or preventing it.Added: 2020
- Start with low hanging fruit.
I’m obsessed with getting maximum results with the minimum required input, and then moving on fast to avoid diminishing returns. For me, this approach is most relevant in business growth: “how do I get 80% of the results with 20% of the effort?” But it applies to many other areas too.Added: 2020
- Be willing to throw out your work over and over.
I’ll scrap hours of work if I can do it again and make it 10% better.Added: 2020
Health, Wellness & Fitness 🍏
- If you eat healthy always, and walk around sometimes, you probably won’t be worried about your weight.
Cook with whole foods at home. Don’t eat refined sugar. Only drink water. Walk 30 minutes per day.Added: 2016
- Your body can feel healthy.
I’ve had twelve years of neck pain. At one point I had a parasite and lost 50 pounds. When you have chronic pain or illness it’s easy to think that it’s normal, but it’s not. The worse you feel, the more you need to make healing your first priority.Added: 2016
- Every health advice from everyone, everywhere is pretty much wrong.
Everyone’s body is different. But what I do know is that it’s all interconnected. If you want robust health, you have to optimize your sleep, nutrition, exercise, rest, stress, detox, etc. and when you do your mind will be sharper, you will have way more energy, your senses will heighten.Added: 2016
- Exercising for 3 minutes per day is better than nothing.
My go-to exercise is pushups. You can do pushups anywhere and IMO it’s a pretty comprehensive body exercise. Try to do as many as you can in 3 minutes, with a goal of 100 pushups.Added: 2016
- When you are lonely you are vulnerable.
This means you are an easier target for manipulative people, so you REALLY need to spend time with good friends and trust their insights.Added: 2016
- You can never have too many house plants.
If you are reading this then you don’t have enough house plants. Your next step should be to buy an Areca Palm, a Rubber Tree and several Sansevieria plants. Healthy Lungs, healthy life.Added: 2016
- Many soaps, shampoos, deodorants and other things you put on your body are terrible for you.
In most cases there is a natural alternative that is actually more effective. Also, many of these things are optional. Water and scrubbing go a long way.Added: 2016
- Your healthy, able-bodied life doesn’t last the whole 80 years.
It’s easy to look at an average lifespan in your country and go, “great, I have 78 years!” but what this doesn’t show is the degradation of your body and quality of life. You may already be 50%+ done your healthy, able-bodied life and on your way to living with chronic pain, Alzheimer's or cancer. Related: I am willing to make nearly any investment in long term health.Added: 2018
- Level 10 Health is the cumulative benefit of small habits practiced regularly. Added: 2018
- “Everything in moderation” is a bad operating framework for consumption.
A moderate amount of Doritos is a net negative for your health. A small amount of crappy sugar can cause inflammation in your body with serious affects.Added: 2020
- Don’t mistake indulgences for necessities.
Coffee isn't a necessary fuel to function, and alcohol isn't necessary to have a good time. Both are 100% indulgences.Added: 2020
General Philosophy 🤔
- The secret of an empty sink is to only have two of everything.
Two cups, two plates, two sets of chopsticks. If there isn’t enough to fill your sink then your sink will never be full. This is not just about sinks.Added: 2016
- Start now, because as soon as you stop thinking “I’m too young”, you will start thinking “I’m too old”.
There are variations of this, e.g., “I need more experience to start that project” becomes “I have too much experience to start that project.” This is the Goldilocks Equation.Added: 2016
- In two generations you will be a memory, in three generations you will be a concept.
Your grandchildren will watch you die and then you will only exist in their memories. Their children will know you existed, but won’t even have the brain-chemical reactions to conjure the real you.Added: 2016
- Getting married and having your own kids is optional.
There are many different family dynamics, including common law partnerships and adoption. This is not saying that marriage or kids are bad, just that they are one of the options.Added: 2016
- Traffic isn’t a real problem and neither is slow internet.
Many of the things people stress about are actually just inconveniences, with a broad exception for emergencies.Added: 2016
- Most truths have an equal and opposite truth.
Do good things come to those who wait or does the early bird get the worm? Are you better safe than sorry, or should you ask forgiveness instead of permission? If you rely on rote platitudes to make decisions then sometimes it will work out and sometimes it won’t.Added: 2016
- We invented money, politics and international borders. Added: 2016
- That one proverb is bullshit.
There is a quote that goes something like this, “The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago. The second best time is now.” But actually you are already behind. The second best time was the day after 20 years ago. And all that is only if you accept as an absolute truth that earlier equals better — because sometimes timing is a huge factor.Added: 2016
- Everything will end.
In a trillion years, all the stars will blink out and everything we know will be over.Added: 2016
- Sometimes whatever you do, you will regret it.
But there are a range of successful outcomes. You don’t always have to optimize for the perfect result, but instead pursue a path that can bring one of those results.Added: 2016
- Mountains look high until you reach the top.
This is a metaphor for goals. If you set a big ambitious goal and achieve it then it won’t look so big at all.Added: 2016
- From the stars view, everything we do looks so small.
Humanity is still a footnote in cosmic existence.Added: 2016
- Pretty much everything is “we will see”.
Things masquerading as good fortune can become worse, and bad fortune can get better. In most cases the most realistic way to think about the future is “we will see”.Added: 2016
- It’s your fault.
Not always, but if you accept that it is then you can just move on. Sometimes it’s actually someone else’s fault. but it's not, it's your fault.Added: 2016
- The Great Wall of China wasn’t for keeping out people — it was for keeping out horses.
Raiders without their mounts aren’t terribly effective. The point: sometimes there are indirect means of achieving a result.Added: 2016
- Once something is entrenched, it may not matter if it’s wrong.
We calculate the current year based on the birth of Christ, but even amongst people that believe this happened it’s generally accepted as earlier than what we call year zero. It doesn’t matter, it’s still 2016.Added: 2016
- The best ideas can take time.
India invented “zero” and it took the West 2000 years to adopt its use.Added: 2016
- People have wanted to quit working to become nomads ever since they quit nomadding to become workers. Added: 2016
- Read the books that no one else is reading.
A lot of mainstream books aren’t very good because authors and publishers have a formula that turns glorified blog posts into overhyped books. Best selling doesn’t mean best value or even worth reading, so avoid allowing that social proof to override better factors for choosing what you read.Added: 2018
- Make a decision or keep your options open.
People will tell you they are unhappy at work, and for whatever reason they haven’t decided to leave yet. That’s okay! But if you act like an unhappy employee: unproductive, unfriendly, or unprofessional, then your company may make the decision for you. This “loss of options” is common in relationships too.Added: 2018
- Think about “should-dos” and “must-dos.”
I used to categorize flossing as a should-do, when it’s actually a must-do. This switch isn’t a mental trick; flossing is actually a must for good oral hygiene and I had miscategorized it. Now, I floss every day.Added: 2018
- You can count to ten on one hand!
No repeats required, and every six year old in China can do this. There is a meta point about expanding your awareness of what is possible, but it’s also just fun to learn. Another thing Chinese kids can easily do that you can’t: eat an entire bag of chips without getting flavour dust all over their fingers.Added: 2018
- It's only 2018, we are still building the foundation of human civilization. Added: 2018
- Ask for what you want!
You can get the seat you want, more veggies on your plate, a more exciting sex life and the raise you’ve been waiting for. A key part of getting what you want is asking for it.Added: 2018
- Your dominant state isn't an exception.
Example: You're not "in a funk" if you feel that way 90% of the time, then it's just life. Acknowledging your state gives you perspective on the need to take action, and what action to take.Added: 2018
- The maximum value of empathy is at the point it intersects with reality.
You may think you know how someone feels, but if you are incorrect then energy is wasted. Communicate, then empathize.Added: 2018
- You can eat the whole apple.
Including the core, seeds and all. This isn’t a metaphor, you can literally eat the whole apple.Added: 2020
- Don’t make it hard on yourself.
Want to lose weight? You don’t need to make quinoa, asparagus muffins with agave syrup and farm-aged cinnamon butter. Tired of feeling tired? Go to bed earlier and leave your phone in another room.Added: 2020
- You can save 90% of the power you are using to cook.
Instead of the way you cook now, you can just boil water, drop in your stuff, cover it with a tight lid and turn off the stove. Pretty much everything will cook from the remaining heat. The same principle applies to the oven, with exceptions for sensitive baked goods.Added: 2021
- The #1 Rule of the Internet is don’t engage with people that have more time than you.
You will know they have more time than you because they will lie, write in all caps, threaten to sue you, etc.Added: 2016
- Every person you pass in the street has a life as infinitely complex as yours.
It’s important to remember this when you interact with them.Added: 2016
- Ask for advice not decisions.
It’s tempting to ask other people to make decisions for you, but they don’t have all the information. The best your network can do is add perspective, so ask for that and make your own decisions. Exception: you can pay an expert to make decisions for you. Bonus if they are insured.Added: 2016
- It’s okay to be an introvert.
In North America there is a bias towards being an extrovert, but actually one isn’t better than the other.Added: 2016
- You don’t have to identify as an extrovert OR as an introvert.
The reality is there are more distinct options and many people are really close to the middle.Added: 2016
- How people influence you is not evenly distributed.
You may know that wisdom and research say you are the average of the 5 people you spend the most time with. But even one person can have a major influence on you, both good and bad.Added: 2016
- Pursue groups that are mathematically impossible.
That average of 5 people thing is usually held out by gurus as a tactic for improving your life. But averages exist because some numbers are higher than the average and some numbers are lower. Instead, pursue groups that are mathematically impossible, i.e., every member brings the average up.Added: 2016
- Podcasts are a great way to get to know people.
You can host one or be a guest. An hour of conversation is a strong foundation to an ongoing relationship.Added: 2016
- Answer “How are you?” with at least two sentences.
If you just respond “good, and you?” you move nothing forward. Instead answer with some context, “I’m good, but kind of jet lagged. I’m experimenting with a new sleep schedule to…” This gives your conversation partner way more to latch onto for a follow up question.Added: 2016
- The phrase, “I’m not racist, but…” is always followed by something racist.
There is no threshold. If you say, think or do racist shit, you are racist.Added: 2016
- Wish the people you care about happy birthday one day early.
Facebook has ruined birthday wishes by making them a commodity. One way to show friends you care is to remember their birthday and send them a real message the day before, aiming for connection not completion.Added: 2016
- You will say dumb things and make mistakes.
But if you generally do good by people, that’s what they will remember.Added: 2016
- If someone takes advantage of everyone around them, eventually they will get to you. Added: 2016
- Get a penpal.
It’s great practice writing and gives you new perspective on the world. I remember having penpals in grade school, and then when I was ~18 I started writing letters to some that I met on a Geocities site. Most of those connections faded over time, but one is still a good friend.Added: 2016
- Never cheat on your significant other.
If you do cheat, own up to it. You will find advice online that validates cheating or withholding that you already have, but it’s crappy advice. Also, if you have to ask “is it cheating?” the answer is always yes.Added: 2018
- Relationships with shared core values are stronger.
Example core values include Forthright Communication is the Right Communication, Operate at Level 10 Integrity and Take Care of Yourself to Keep the Unit Strong. These values serve as a heuristic to make better, more consistent decisions, and also give your relationship its own unique identity.Added: 2018
- Analogies should trigger the question, “is it even valid?”
Folks often explain or argue by analogy, and these analogies are often false. Before using or responding to an analogy make sure you are comparing nachos to nachos.Added: 2018
- Just because advice is given with good intentions doesn’t mean it’s good.
Filter advice you receive by thinking about the source and whether they have credibility in the subject matter.Added: 2018
- Forthright communication is the right communication.
Want stronger and more fulfilling relationships? You can start by speaking your mind. In every relationship, you will have something on your mind that you don't tell the person it is most relevant to. Maybe you feel unappreciated, jealous or like something is bugging you. Tell your partner! And forthright communication is important for positive things too, like giving words of affirmation.Added: 2018
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